Hepatitis-A: Review on Current and Future Scenario

Pallavi K1*, Sravani D1, Durga PN2, Durga S1, Pavan PNS1, Babu PS1, and Raviteja K1

1Department of Pharmaceutics, Vignan Pharmacy College, Vadlamudi, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

2IPT, Sri Padmavati Mahila University, Tirupati

*Corresponding Author:
Pallavi K
Department of Pharmaceutics
Vignan Pharmacy College
Vadlamudi, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
Tel: +91 9030961817
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 24, 2017; Accepted Date: March 29, 2017; Published Date: April 5, 2017

Citation: Pallavi K, Sravani D, Durga S, et al. Hepatitis-A: Review on Current and Future Scenario. J In Silico In Vitro Pharmacol. 2017, 3:1. doi: 10.4172/2469-6692.100015

Copyright: © 2017 Pallavi K, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Hepatitis is familiarly termed as inflammation to the liver. It can be incurred by both infectious and non-infectious ways. Infectious type may be caused by certain parasitic organisms, fungus, bacteria and virus. Non Infectious ways include metabolic diseases, autoimmune disorders, alcohols and certain drugs. Several types of hepatitis like Hepatitis type A (HAV), Hepatitis type B (HBV), Hepatitis type C (HCV), Hepatitis type D (HDV), Hepatitis type E (HEV). Hepatitis A and E are acute infection which can be cured in a lesser time whereas the other types are chronic and take long term medication for recovery. The present study describes in detail about the transmission mode, treatment options and preventive measures for all the types of hepatitis infections. A brief mention of hepatitis X and Hepatitis G was also produced.


Hepatitis; Liver infection; Acute; Chronic infections


Hepatitis is described as an inflammation of the liver [1-5]. It may be caused by drugs, alcohol use, or certain medical conditions. But in most cases, it is caused by a virus. This is known as viral hepatitis. The condition of hepatitis can be self-limiting or it can cause fibrosis i.e., scarring, cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis is the most common type of disease that occurs in the world. Along with virus other infections and toxic substances such as alcohol, certain drugs, and auto-immune disease can also cause hepatitis.

There are 5 different types of hepatitis viruses i.e., A, B, C, D and E along with X and G. The 5 main types are superlative regard because of the encumbrance of illness and death and they root the plausible for the paroxysm and communicable transmission. In precise, forms B and C bulge to perennial in disposition in millions of humans and in sync are the utmost common trivial of liver cirrhosis and cancers.

Hepatitis A and hepatitis E are emblematically induced by consumption of pestiferous water and food. Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and hepatitis D are ordinarily stimulated as an outcome of Parenteral, adjoin with infected bodily fluids. Usual modality of contagion for these viruses admit acknowledge of pestiferous blood/blood products, incursive medical procedures using befoul apparatus and for hepatitis B hauling from mother to child at birth, from clan members to adolescent and through erotic association.

Severe contamination may occur with finite or no manifestation or may include indications such as jaundice (yellowing of eyes and skin), dark urine, extreme fatigue etc.

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a viral disease, which is caused by hep A virus. It can produce modest to rigid unwellness. The ailment is intimately connected with perilous water or food, deficient asepsis and poor individual cleanliness.

Hepatitis A epidemic doesn’t root long standing liver disease, contrary to hepatitis B and C. It is seldom calamitous yet it instigates acute liver damage. Hepatitis A is a food borne infection. For recovery it can proceeds weeks or months.


Hepatitis A [5-10] is transmitted primarily through fecal-oral route; that is while a disinfected individual assimilate water or food that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected person.

Only through confined bodily sensible contiguity virus is transmissible, but not through casual contact.


The incubation duration of hepatitis is 14-28 days.

Symptoms include fever, loss of appetite, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark colored urine and jaundice. Than children, adults have more signs and symptoms. Below 6 years of age do not feel any indications and few children develop jaundice.


Hepatitis A is not clinically separable from auxiliary eccentric of acute viral hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by detection of HAV-IgM antibodies in the blood.

Additional tests include RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase- Polymerase Chain Reaction) to detect hepatitis A virus RNA.


There is no peculiar treatment for hep A, so dodging of superfluous medicament, acetaminophen/paracetamol and medicine in contrary to emesis shouldn’t be disposed. Treatment is aimed at, by keeping the person in ease and nutritional equipoise.


The distribution of hepatitis A can be decreased by:

• Proper disposal of sewages.

• Personal hygiene practices.

• Adequate provision of unharmed drinking water.

Virtually everybody convalesce from hepatitis A with a womb-to-tomb resistance. However, a little proportion of population infected with hepatitis A can decease with fulminant hepatitis.


Hepatitis-B is a virus infection which is caused by hepatitis-B virus and it assail the liver. So, it causes both chronic and acute diseases. In chronic infection liver cancer and liver [10-14] cirrhosis may occur and puts the citizenry at eminent jeopardy of death.

Children below 6 years of age, who defiled with hepatitis B, are most probably to acquire chronic infections. In 20-30% of adults when they are chronically infected may develop cirrhosis/liver cancer.


The HBV may live on utmost the body for leastwise 7 days. At this time if it pass into the body of an individual who is not vaccinated, then it cause infection. The incubation period for HBV is on average 75 days. The virus may be ascertain within 30-60 days after contagion and evolve into inveterate Hepatitis B.

• In case of transmission from pregnant women to child, either perinatal transmission or horizontal transmission i.e., to infected blood may occur.

• HBV may circulate by transcutaneous or mucosal vulnerability to infected blood and diverse bodily fluids like menstrual, vaginal, saliva, seminal fluids.

• Virus is easily transmitted through sexual contact.

• Improper sterilization of needles and syringes may leads to transmission of virus.

• Improper therapeutic, operative and dental consonant procedures or by means of tattooing, or through razors, virus may transmit.


During the incisive contagion commonalty do not endure any indications. But, in some people symptoms lasts for several weeks. They comprehend xanthous of eyes and skin (Jaundice), dark urine, weary, loathing, regurgitation and abdominal rack. In a certain quantity of people with acute hepatitis be able to exhibit acute liver failure and that leads to death.


Laboratory confirmation is essential to distinguish hepatitis B from other hepatitis bring about by viral agents for diagnosing of hepatitis, there consist of several blood exams which are used to differentiate acute and chronic infections.

Acute infection is characterised by mien of HBsAg and IgM antibody to the inmost part of antigen, HBcAg. During the commencing phasis of taint, sick persons are also seropositive for HBeAg that is a marker of aloft proportion of repetition of the virus. The demeanor of HBeAg specifies that the blood and bodily fluids of the septic personage are extremely infectious.

Chronic defilement is characterized for perseverance of HBsAg for at the least 6 months. Perseverance of HBsAg is the principle marker of jeopardy for development of chronic liver infirmity and liver cancer subsequently in life.


For poignant hepatitis B, there is no peculiar discourse, so, care is maintained properly. Chronic hepatitis B has power to be treated through medicines like oral and anti-viral agents. If the patient takes treatment then, it slows the advancement of liver cirrhosis, abridge the relative incidence of liver cancer and ameliorate long time survival.

By using oral treatments like either tenofovir or entecavir which are almost cogent drugs to overwhelm HBV, antiviral medications, Interferon alfa-2b (Intron A) and finally liver transplantation. They rarely lead to drug hindrance when present a resemblance with former drugs and possess scarcely any fallout. So, beseech solely circumscribed monitoring. In just about people, it doesn’t heal hepatitis B merely smothers the repetition of the virus. Therefore, they must continue it throughout their life.


In all infants, hepatitis vaccine should be received as early as feasible subsequent to birth, by preference within 24 h. The birth dosage should be pursued by 2/3rd of dose to execute the series. The first dose is monovalent and 2nd and 3rd are monovalent conjunct Vaccinium presumption at the corresponding duration of DTP vaccine (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus). Protection from HBV is done by this vaccine endure for at the least 20 years and is apparently life-long.

This disease is more common in:

• People who often requires blood or blood products, dialysis, receiver of solid organ transplantations.

• Persons who inject drugs.

• Household and sexual intercourse of persons with long standing HBV infection.

• People who are exposed to blood and blood products over their work.

• People interned in prisons.

Hepatitis C

Hep C is a liver disease which is caused by hepatitis C virus. The virus can induce both acute and chronic hepatitis infection, which ranges in inclemency from a mild sickness durable for a few weeks to a serious, womb-to-tomb illness.

Modes of infection for HCV are transfusion of aggravate blood and blood products, improper sterilization of medical apparatus and perilous injection practices.

There is presently no vaccine for this type of hepatitis but, research is going on in this realm.

Acute HCV infection

It is asymptomatic, and it is very rarely associated with life-threatening disease. About 15-45% of taint persons gratuitously exonerated the virus not beyond 6 months of infection out of any discourse.

Chronic HCV infection

55-85% of individuals will unravel chronic HCV infection. The persons with inveterate HCV infection have the risk of liver cirrhosis is between 15-20% in the limits of 20 years.

Transmission of HCV infection

It is a blood innate disease. It is transmitted by:

• The transference of unscreened blood and blood products.

• Reuse of inadequate sterilization [15-17] of syringes and needles.

• Sharing of injection equipment.

• Transmission by sexually.

• Passed from mother to fetus.

• People with HIV infections.

• Prisoners.

• People who have tattoos or piercings.


Incubation period is 2 weeks to 6 months. After initial infection, nearly 80% of clan does not show any foretoken and tokens. Symptoms like broil, exhaustion, decreased appetency, abomination, regurgitation, abdominal pain, swarthy urine, grey-colored feces, joint chafe and icterus.


Viewing for anti-HCV antibodies are with serological tests which confound persons who has been identified with this hepatitis c virus. Then, if the test is absolute, a nucleic acid exam for HCV RNA is required to corroborate chronic contagion.


As acute HCV defilement is symptomless, scarcely any canailles are cued for the period of this scaffold. Then, it turns to chronic HCV contagium, which is frequently undiagnosed as the defilement relics symptomless and the tokens acquire proxy to demure liver impair.


There is no vaccine for HCV. Therefore, hindrance of HCV vitiation rely upon the lessening the peril of vulnerability to the virus. HCV doesn’t perpetually necessitate discourse as the immune reaction directly clears the infection. If treatment is needed, then it depends on strain of virus and the type of treatment for 6 genotypes of hepatitis C strain. The discourse was founded on therapy with Pegylated interferon-α and Ribavirin, which requisite hebdomadally injections for 48 weeks. Sometimes, they cause life-threatening adverse reactions.

Recently, new anti-viral drugs have been developed, they are called “direct anti-viral agents” (DAA) in which they are safer, more effective better tolerated than older therapies. The treatment is shorter than older therapies i.e., 12 weeks. Telaprevir and Boceprevir are 1st generation DAA’s, which have more side effects when compared with newer DAAs. So, these are no thirster suggested.


Hepatitis D virus is a RNA virus which requires HBV for its replication. HDV infection occurs simultaneously or super-infection with HBV which is more severe infection than HBV monoinfection. Hepatitis D cannot occur in absence of HBV. A vaccine against Hepatitis B only prevents against Hepatitis D infection.

Transmission of Hepatitis-D infection

The route of transmission is same as that of hepatitis-B. The transmissions routes:

• Infected through blood products percutaneous.

• Through sexual contact.

• Migration of people towards HEP D is regional.

• Longstanding HEP B stab to HEP D.


HEP D affected people who are even now enduring by HEP B. Although, HEP D annihilates HEP B miniature, HEP D makes tracks towards cirrhosis. HEP B mono infected persons.


HEP D sepiticity titers of IgG and IgM anti–HEP D and confirmed by spotting of HEP D RNA in serum.


Right away there is no valid anti-viral therapy for Hepatitis D. Paginated interferon-α is the only drug which is effective against HEP D. Anti-viral nucleotide analogues have no or limited sequence on HEP D replication. The ideal and classical therapy is not well defined. Liver trans-plantation [18-21] may be performed in context of culminant hep and end-stage liver disease. Ultramodern therapeutic agents and tactics are required and neoteric drugs, such as prenylation inhibitor or HEP B entry inhibitors.


• HEP D infection is blocked by HEP B vaccine.

• Blood safety.

• Injection safety.

• Harm reduction services.


Hepatitis E is caused by Hepatitis E virus (HEV) which is a single stranded RNA genome. HEV has 4 types of genotypes of which 1 and 2 are present in animals like pig, deer etc. Without causing any disease to animals but occasionally infect humans and 3 and 4 are present in humans. Hepatitis B infection is self-limiting and resolves within 2-6 weeks.

HEV infections is more common in young adults aged 15-40 years and in children infection occur but, mild illness or no symptoms without jaundice that goes undiagnosed.


• The HEV is transmitted through stool-to-mouth route by contamination of drinking water. This is the most common contamination route.

• Due to poor sanitation, the virus reaches people through drinking water supplies.

• Ingestion of undercooked comestible or meat products which are imitative from infected animals.

• Transfer of infected blood products are taint with HEV.


The fecundation period ranges from 10-12 weeks with an atypical of 5-6 weeks. The affected persons hold to exude virus before 3-4 weeks after the onset of disease.

These symptoms typically last between 1-6 weeks.

The signs and symptoms are:

• Initially with mild fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting which lasts for few days. Jaundice with pale stools and hepatomegaly in which slight enlargement of liver, tender liver.

• In few cases acute hepatitis is severe and leads to fulminant hepatitis patients are at a risk of death. Acute liver failure is seen more in pregnant a woman who occurs in second or third trimester in which they are at a risk of mortality, infertility. Chronic HEV infection is seen in immunosuppressed people i.e., organ transplant recipients.


HEV is not clinically distinguished from other types of viral hepatitis. So diagnosis can strongly suspect in pertinent epidemiologic site. Addition tests include RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction) to detect HEV RNA in blood or stool. This assay requires specialized laboratory facilities. This is done in case of chronic HEV infection.


There is no cut fine therapeutics for HEV. Hospitalization is necessary. For immune-suppressed people a specific treatment using an anti-viral drug, ribavirin is done.


Prevention is done by:

• Affirming characteristic criterion for community water supplies.

• Establishing proper disposal systems for human feces.

Hepatitis X

Hepatitis X is caused by an anonymous virus. If hepatitis cannot be caused due to the viruses of hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E then it is called Hepatitis X.

Hepatitis G

It is caused by the hepatitis G virus (HGV). No symptoms are seen in hepatitis G. If hepatitis is seen also they are very mild.


A gradual increase in the statistics proved that Hepatitis is recently wide spread disease and may attack higher count of population. Proper preventive measures can avoid the incurrence of disease. Hepatitis B and D are chronic and require proper treatment options.


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